Radio Show ep. 7: Liturgy of the Eucharist (1 of 6)

Posted by Jeffrey Pinyan at 1:55 PM

Air Date:  November 28, 2010 (11 AM) / December 3, 2010 (2 PM)
Topic: Liturgy of the Word:  Readings, Responsorial Psalm, Alleluia, Gospel

  • Liturgy of the Eucharist
    • Episode 7: Introduction, Offertory
    • Episode 8: Prayer over the Offerings, Eucharistic Prayer (Introduction, Preface, Sanctus)
    • Episode 9: Eucharistic Prayer (priest's prayer)
    • Episode 10: Our Father, Rite of Peace
    • Episode 11: Lamb of God, Fraction/Mingling, Preparation for Communion
    • Episode 12: Communion, Ablutions, Post-Communion Prayer
  • Introduction
    • Three parts
      • Offertory
      • Eucharistic Prayer
      • Communion Rite
    • Five "movements" (based on the Roman Canon, Eucharistic Prayer I)
      • He took bread in his holy and venerable hands (Offertory)
      • and with his eyes raised to heaven to you, O God, his almighty Father, giving you thanks (Preface)
      • he said the blessing (Consecration)
      • broke the bread (Fraction)
      • and gave it to his disciples (Communion)
  • Preparation of the Altar
    • Altar cloths
    • Sacred vessels
  • Offertory Procession (Presentation of the Gifts)
    • Financial Offerings
    • Bread and Wine
  • Preparation of the Gifts
    • "Blessed are you..." (bread)
      • "Blessed be God forever"
    • Mixing of the water and the wine ("By the mystery of this water and wine...")
    • "Blessed are you..." (wine)
    • "With humble spirit..."
    • "Wash me, O Lord..."
  • Next episode
    • Prayer over the Offerings
    • Eucharistic Prayer (Introduction, Preface, Sanctus)
  • Contact me
    • Send questions to
      • Questions answered on the web site, not on the air
    • Consider buying the Praying the Mass series!

Radio Show ep. 6: Liturgy of the Word (2 of 2)

Posted by Jeffrey Pinyan at 1:27 PM

Air Date:  November 21, 2010 (11 AM) / November 26, 2010 (2 PM)
Topic: Liturgy of the Word:  Homily, Profession of Faith, Prayer of the Faithful

  • Liturgy of the Word
    • Episode 5: Readings, Responsorial Psalm, Alleluia, Gospel
    • Episode 6: Homily, Profession of Faith, Prayer of the Faithful
    • Purpose is to establish communion among the faithful and prepare them to listen properly to God's word and celebrate the Eucharist worthily
  • Homily
    • Purpose
    • History
    • The Homily and the Mass
  • Profession of Faith (Creed)
    • Apostles' Creed
    • Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed
      • "I believe"
      • "Visible and invisible"
      • "Consubstantial with the Father"
      • "Incarnate of the Virgin Mary"
  • Prayer of the Faithful
  • Next episode on the Liturgy of the Eucharist (Overview and Offertory)
  • Contact me
    • Send questions to
      • Questions answered on the web site, not on the air
    • Consider buying the Praying the Mass series!

Radio Show ep. 5: Liturgy of the Word (1 of 2)

Posted by Jeffrey Pinyan at 2:11 PM

Air Date:  November 14, 2010 (11 AM) / November 19, 2010 (2 PM)
Topic: Liturgy of the Word:  Readings, Responsorial Psalm, Alleluia, Gospel

  • Liturgy of the Word
    • Episode 5: Readings, Responsorial Psalm, Alleluia, Gospel
    • Episode 6: Homily, Profession of Faith, Prayer of the Faithful
    • Purpose is to establish communion among the faithful and prepare them to listen properly to God's word and celebrate the Eucharist worthily
  • Cycle of Readings
    • Three-year Sunday cycle
    • Two-year weekday cycle
  • Why is Scripture read?
  • Christ is present in the reading of the Scriptures
  • First (and Second) Reading
    • "The Word of the Lord"
    • "Thanks be to God"
  • Responsorial Psalm
    • Responds to the First Reading
  • Alleluia (or Gospel Acclamation)
  • Gospel
    • Blessing for the Gospel (Priest or Deacon)
    • "Glory to you, O Lord"
      • Sign of the Cross
    • "The Gospel of the Lord" / "Praise to you, Lord Jesus Christ"
    • "Through the words of the Gospel..."
      • Kissing the Book of the Gospels
  • Next episode on the Homily, Profession of Faith, and the Prayer of the Faithful
  • Contact me
    • Send questions to
      • Questions answered on the web site, not on the air
    • Consider buying the Praying the Mass series!

Radio Show ep. 4: Introductory Rites (3 of 3)

Posted by Jeffrey Pinyan at 2:01 PM

Air Date:  November 7, 2010 (11 AM) / November 12, 2010 (2 PM)
Topic: Introductory Rites: Gloria, Collect

  • Gloria
    • Begins with the words sung by angels on earth when Christ was born
    • Trinitarian in form:  praises the Father, the Son, and (briefly) the Holy Spirit
  • Collect
    • "Let us pray."
    • One of the "proper" prayers of the Mass
    • "Collects" the intentions of the Mass into one
  • Next episode on the Liturgy of the Word (through the Gospel)
  • Contact me
    • Send questions to
      • Questions answered on the web site, not on the air
    • Consider buying the Praying the Mass series!

Radio Show ep. 3: Introductory Rites (2 of 3)

Posted by Jeffrey Pinyan at 10:24 AM

Air Date:  October 31, 2010 (11 AM) / November 5, 2010 (2 PM)
Topic: Introductory Rites: Greeting, Penitential Act, Kyrie

  • Greeting
    • Priest's greetings (from the letters of St. Paul)
      • "The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the communion of the Holy Spirit be with you all." (2 Cor. 13:14)
      • "Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ." (Rom. 1:7)
      • "The Lord be with you." (2 Th. 3:16)
    • Bishop's greeting (from the lips of Jesus)
      • "Peace be with you." (John 20:19)
    • Our response: "And with your spirit." (cf. Gal. 6:18; 2 Tim. 4:22)
  • Penitential Act
    • To seek forgiveness for sins is a prerequisite for righteous and pure prayer. (CCC 2631)
    • Form A: Confiteor
    • Form B: Dialogue
    • Form C: Kyrie with tropes
    • Absolution
  • Kyrie
  • Next episode on the Gloria and Collect
  • Contact me
    • Send questions to
      • Questions answered on the web site, not on the air
    • Consider buying the Praying the Mass series!

Radio Show ep. 2: Introductory Rites (1 of 3)

Posted by Jeffrey Pinyan at 9:18 AM

Recording Date:  September 15, 2010
Air Date:  October 24, 2010 (11 AM) / October 29, 2010 (2 PM)
Topic: Introductory Rites: Entrance Procession and Sign of the Cross

  • Introductory Rites
    • Episode 2: Entrance Procession, Sign of the Cross
    • Episode 3: Greeting, Penitential Act
    • Episode 4: Gloria, Collect
    • Purpose is to establish communion among the faithful and prepare them to listen properly to God's word and celebrate the Eucharist worthily
  • Entrance Procession
    • Approaching the altar
    • Reverencing the altar
    • Hymn or Introit
  • Sign of the Cross
    • The words
    • The gesture
    • "Amen"
  • Next episode on the Greeting and the Penitential Act
  • Contact me
    • Send questions to
      • Questions answered on the web site, not on the air
    • Consider buying the Praying the Mass series!

Invite Jeff to speak at your parish

Posted by Jeffrey Pinyan at 12:51 PM

In the next few months, I will be speaking at two parishes.  I have a two-hour speaking engagement (tentatively scheduled for early December) at St. Gregory the Great in Hamilton, NJ, and a five-hour speaking engagement (in early January) at the Church of the Incarnation in Collierville, TN.

If you are interested in having me come to your parish to speak about the new English translation, or about "praying" the Mass in general, please contact me at talks [at]  Let me know where your parish is located, what dates you have in mind, and how best to contact you (phone conversations being the most convenient).  I cannot guarantee that I can meet every request, and parishes outside a 100-mile radius from Trenton, NJ, are harder for me to commit to.

New Translation at Theology on Tap

Posted by Jeffrey Pinyan at 7:53 AM

This coming Tuesday, October 19, at 7:30 pm, I will be the presenter for the Trenton diocese's Theology on Tap.  I will be talking about the new English translation of the Mass at Kilarney's Publick House in Hamilton. (1644 Whitehorse-Mercerville Rd., Hamilton, NJ 08619)  If you're in the area, stop by!

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Radio Show ep. 1: Introduction

Posted by Jeffrey Pinyan at 11:34 PM

Recording Date:  September 15, 2010
Air Date:  October 17, 2010 (11 AM) / October 22, 2010 (2 PM)
Topic:  Introduction to the Series and to the Mass

  • Purpose of the series
    • To learn the language of the liturgy (signs and symbols, sights and smells, sounds and silences)
    • To explain the purpose of the rites and relate them to the Christian life
  • Three ways to look at the Mass
    • A re-presentation of the Paschal Mystery (from Palm Sunday to Ascension Thursday)
      • Where does Pentecost come in?
    • A grand exchange between God and man
      • For all you get from God at Mass, what are you giving to Him?
    • The divine liturgy, the work of God
      • What can you perceive the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit doing at Mass?
  • Five ways to prepare for Mass
    • Prayer — build a habit of daily prayer
    • Scripture — read the Bible regularly, especially those readings you'll hear at Mass
    • Fasting — develop a hunger and reverence for the Eucharist
    • Confession — receive Communion in the state of grace
    • Silence — quiet yourself before God to listen for His "still small voice"
  • Online resources
  • Next three episodes on the Introductory Rites
  • Contact me
    • Send questions to
      • Questions answered on the web site, not on the air
    • Consider buying the Praying the Mass series!

Article in The Monitor

Posted by Jeffrey Pinyan at 2:33 PM

Dave Kilby's article in the Trenton Monitor is now online.

Radio Show Taping

Posted by Jeffrey Pinyan at 3:40 PM

Praying the Mass is hitting to the radio waves!  This Wednesday, September 15th — which happens to be the two-year anniversary of WFJS 1260-AM Trenton (Domestic Church Radio) going on-the-air — I will be recording two episodes for a 13-part radio series on the Mass, based on my books.

Today (Tuesday, September 14th) around 5:45 PM, I will be doing a test-run of these two shows at home, making sure I can fit the content into the allotted time.  Tomorrow (Wednesday) around 5:15 PM, I will be recording them at the radio station.

Both today and tomorrow I will be simulcasting and recording those two shows on my ustream channel.  I encourage and welcome you to visit to watch and listen as I record and speak about the Mass.  If you watch and listen today, please send me feedback!

Article in The Monitor

Posted by Jeffrey Pinyan at 2:11 PM

My local diocesan newspaper, The Monitor of Trenton, had a "Special Report" section on the new English translation of the Roman Missal, three pages of articles about it. A local reporter for the paper, David Kilby, had interviewed me back in June, and this morning after Mass I was delighted to see the article/interview on Page 4!

Until the article goes online, I'll just include a brief excerpt here:

When antiquity and modernity meet in the Catholic Church, you get a book on the new English Mass translation sold trough and written by a computer programmer who emphasizes the importance of Scripture and Latin.

That is the paradox of Jeffrey Pinyan's first book, "Praying the Mass: The Prayers of the People." ...

"The Catholic Church isn't about language. It's about Jesus Christ," he said. "Language is important, but not as important as the Eucharist." Pinyan emphasizes how every change in the new Mass translation doesn't change the essence of the Mass. If anything it makes the realities of the Mass more forthright. ...

"Sometimes we need to be reminded of our message and mission. I think something like this book can help [faithful Catholics] see things they've never seen before."

English Translation Approved

Posted by Jeffrey Pinyan at 4:50 PM

This just in from the USCCB:

Cardinal George Announces Vatican Approval of New Roman Missal English-Language Translation, Implementation Set for First Sunday of Advent 2011

WASHINGTON—Cardinal Francis George, OMI, Archbishop of Chicago and President of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops (USCCB), has announced that the full text of the English-language translation of the Roman Missal, Third Edition, has been issued for the dioceses of the United States of America. ...

Cardinal George announced receipt of the documents in an August 20 letter to the U.S. Bishops and issued a decree of proclamation that states that “The use of the third edition of the Roman Missal enters into use in the dioceses of the United States of America as of the First Sunday of Advent, November 27, 2011. From that date forward, no other edition of the Roman Missal may be used in the dioceses of the United States of America.”

The date of implementation was chosen to allow publishers time to prepare texts and parishes and dioceses to educate parishioners.

“We can now move forward and continue with our important catechetical efforts as we prepare the text for publication,” Cardinal George said. ...
The USCCB Roman Missal web site has already been updated to reflect this final edition of the translation. Volume 1 of the Praying the Mass series, The Prayers of the People, has undergone another slight revision, but I will not be releasing it just yet. Volume 2, The Prayers of the Priest, which is still in production, has already been adjusted to reflect the new texts.

Review by Carol Clark

Posted by Jeffrey Pinyan at 12:37 PM

I had ordered this book in the hopes of sharing with cradle Catholics some of the depth of understanding of the mass that I, as a convert, had learned through my RCIA studies. But what a surprise! Instead of a 'once over lightly' of the rubrics and a few of the reasons for them, I found a veritable FEAST. As I read, I must stop every few verses and digest, much like the 'Selah' of the Psalms. While Scott Hahn's work on the Mass, The Lamb's Supper, whisked my mind and heart away into the heavenlies, this work rends the curtain between the two sanctuaries, allowing a synthesis that will forever change my experience of the mass - perhaps as much as Dr Hahn's book has! God bless both authors for their gifts to the Church. (from

The charities I support

Posted by Jeffrey Pinyan at 8:38 AM

I received an email this morning asking me about the charities I support with the proceeds from book sales.

There are two charities which receive 10% of each book sale.  The first is the Mater Ecclesiae Fund for Vocations, which assists men and women in paying off their college debt so that they can enter religious life.  The second is WFJS 1260-AM, my local Catholic radio station in Trenton, NJ.

The Prayers of the People goes to Steubenville!

Posted by Jeffrey Pinyan at 11:54 AM

My book, Praying the Mass: The Prayers of the People, will be for sale at one of the display tables at the St. John Bosco Conference at Franciscan University in Steubenville, Ohio this week.  24 copies were ordered (although I understand there is a cover defect with a few of them) for Martha Drennan, who will be speaking about magisterial documents.  (I don't know exactly how she will be mentioning my book in her two sessions, but I do quote several Church documents in the book...)

There will also be two talks by Fr. Douglas Martis on the new English translation.  I wish I could be there, but I've got work to do!

Mixing the Wine with Water

Posted by Jeffrey Pinyan at 2:04 PM

This prayer from the Mass is said quietly by the deacon or priest during the Preparation of the Gifts, while he prepares the chalice by pouring in some wine and then adding a few drops of water:
Per huius aquæ et vini mystérium
eius efficiámur divinitátis consórtes,
qui humanitátis nostræ fíeri dignátus est párticeps.

By the mystery of this water and wine              2 Macc. 15:39; John 19:34
may we come to share in the divinity of Christ          Rom. 5:2; 2 Pet. 1:4
who humbled himself to share in our humanity.                       Phil. 2:8
The simple act of pouring water into wine, and the prayer accompanying it, is a synthesis of the whole Mass, of the whole Catholic faith, and of all salvation history.  In order to unearth the theological and doctrinal riches of this easily-overlooked rite, we should first examine the history of this prayer.
Its oldest known ancestor is a Collect for the Nativity of our Lord from the Leonine Sacramentary, an ancient Mass-book dating back to the seventh century, if not earlier.  Here is a translation of the Latin prayer:
O God,
Who wonderfully created the dignity of man’s nature,
and have more wonderfully renewed it,
grant, we beseech You,
that we may be made partakers of His divinity
Who humbled Himself to become a partaker of our humanity
Christ Your Son.
The first half of this Collect speaks of man’s creation and then of his redemption and sanctification in Christ.  The second half considers the Incarnation (celebrated especially on the Solemnity of the Nativity) by which Christ condescended to share our humanity, and which enables us to share in His divinity, in the eternal life of God.  The bold text is what remains of the prayer in the Ordinary Form.
This prayer was incorporated into the Roman Rite, slightly adapted, to accompany the mingling of water with wine in the chalice.  Here is a translation of how the prayer appears in the Extraordinary Form:
O God,
Who wonderfully created the dignity of man’s nature,
and have more wonderfully renewed it,
grant that, through the mystery of this water and wine,
we may be made partakers of His divinity
Who humbled Himself to become a partaker of our humanity
Jesus Christ, Your Son…
You can see that it is essentially the same as the ancient Collect, with the addition of the underlined clause concerning “the mystery of this water and wine.”
Without this context, one might misinterpret the prayer as it exists in the Ordinary Form not as a prayer but merely as a commentary directed to the congregation (and therefore, as words which should be said aloud), but its history shows that these words are still a prayer addressed to God.  So two questions remain:  why is water mixed with the wine, and what has that to do with the Incarnation, with humanity and divinity?
Mixing water with wine was a cultural practice of Jesus’ day, and Apostolic Tradition teaches us that Jesus followed this practice at the Last Supper.  It was not a dishonest practice (cf. Isa. 1:22); rather, wine was thicker and more potent in those days, and it was necessary to temper the wine with water. (cf. 2 Macc. 15:39)  Already in the first three centuries of the Church, there are numerous sources which confirm that the wine used at Mass was mixed with water:  St. Justin Martyr’s account of the Sunday liturgy (cf. First Apology 65, 67), St. Irenaeus’ references to a mixed cup (cf. Against Heresies 4:32; 5:2), St. Clement of Alexandria’s words that “the blood of the grape – that is, the Word – desired to be mixed with water” (The Instructor 2:2), and St. Cyprian’s Letter 62 (on the use of wine and water in the chalice) where he writes several times that it is a tradition of Christ Himself foretold in the book of Proverbs:  “Wisdom has built her house … she has mixed her wine, she has also set her table. … She says, ‘Come, eat of my bread and drink of the wine I have mixed.’” (Prov. 9:1-5)
But the wine used at Mass is no longer as thick or strong as the wine used two thousand years ago.  What was once necessary gained a spiritual significance which has endured long after the necessity has ceased.  The wine and water have four predominant symbolic interpretations.
First, they allude to the piercing of Christ’s heart after His death.  St. John records that one of the soldiers, to ensure that Christ was dead, “pierced his side with a spear, and at once there came out blood and water.” (John 19:34; cf. 1 John 5:6)  This event itself was prefigured by Moses in the desert, when God commanded him to strike a rock with his rod so that water would flow forth. (cf. Ex. 17:5-6)  St. Paul tells us that the rock was an allegory of Christ (cf. 1 Cor. 10:4); later Christians saw the wooden rod of Moses as a foreshadowing of the cross.  This event is seen sometimes as the birth of the Church, born out of the side of Christ while He slept in death; for Christ is the new Adam, and Eve was born out of the side of the sleeping Adam. (cf. Gen. 2:21-22)  The water and blood represent the sacraments of the Baptism and Eucharist, which are the beginning and culmination of all the sacraments:  “Water to cleanse, blood to redeem.” (St. Ambrose, De Sacramentis Book 5, 1:4)
This act is the basis for two popular devotions:  the Sacred Heart of Jesus and Divine Mercy.  Devotion to the Sacred Heart depicts His heart in this way:  wounded and bleeding, aflame with charity, implanted with a cross, crowned with thorns, and radiant with divine light.  The image of Divine Mercy devotion shows rays of red and white light streaming from His heart “as a fountain of mercy for us.”  Just as Moses saw a glimpse of God on Mt. Horeb through a cleft in the rock (cf. Ex. 33:18-23), it is by the opening of Jesus’ heart – the cleft in the Rock Who is Christ – that we see a glimpse of the extent and power of God’s love for us. (I owe this allegory to a brief lecture on the Sacred Heart by Rev. John Zuhlsdorf.)
Second, they represent Christ’s divinity and humanity:  the wine points to His divinity, and the water to His humanity.  Once the water and wine mingle, they cannot be separated; so too Christ’s divinity and humanity, while distinct, are eternally joined in the Incarnation, which is why the original prayer was used on Christmas.  Thus the prayer speaks of the “mystery of this water and wine.”  The Incarnation is the greatest act of “divine condescencion,” where God stoops down to our human level; it is the mystery and paradox of divine humility.  “Christ who humbled himself to share in our humanity” alludes to St. Paul’s words that Jesus “being found in human form he humbled himself and became obedient unto death, even death on a cross.” (Phil. 2:8)
From the identification of the water with humanity comes the third symbolism:  the union of the faithful with Christ.  This too is drawn from the words of the prayer:  “may we come to share in the divinity of Christ.”  The notion of sharing in the divine nature is not blasphemous; on the contrary, it is scriptural!  It comes from St. Peter’s second letter:
His divine power has granted to us all things that pertain to life and godliness, through the knowledge of him who called us to his own glory and excellence, by which he has granted to us his precious and very great promises, that through these you may escape from the corruption that is in the world because of passion, and become partakers of the divine nature. (2 Pet. 1:3-4)
St. Paul alludes to this union as well, when he writes that through Jesus “we rejoice in our hoping of sharing the glory of God.” (Rom. 5:2)  This was the ultimate purpose for which the Incarnation took place, so that after we are redeemed we might also be exalted by God:
The Word became flesh to make us “partakers of the divine nature”:  “For this is why the Word became man, and the Son of God became the Son of man:  so that man, by entering into communion with the Word and thus receiving divine sonship, might become a son of God.”  “For the Son of God became man so that we might become God.”  “The only-begotten Son of God, wanting to make us sharers in his divinity, assumed our nature, so that he, made man, might make men gods.” (Catechism 460)
To receive the blood of Jesus Christ “is to become partaker of the Lord’s immortality.” (The Instructor, 2:2)
The union of divinity and humanity is a mystical marriage.  Consider the first miracle of Jesus, changing water into wine at the wedding feast at Cana. (cf. John 2:1-10)  That this happened at a wedding points to the “marriage supper of the Lamb” (Rev. 19:9) of Christ and His Bride, the Church.  St. Paul wrote of this divine matrimony to the Corinthians and the Ephesians:  “I betrothed you to Christ to present you as a pure bride to her one husband.” (2 Cor. 11:2)  “Husbands, love your wives, as Christ loved the Church and gave himself up for her.” (Eph. 5:25)
The drops of water added to the wine no longer exist of themselves but are caught up and incorporated into the wine.  The water does not merely represent abstract humanity, but each of us concretely as humans:  “we are the drop of water united with the wine.” (Calvary and the Mass)  This is an analogy for life in Christ:  what Jesus has by nature (His divine Sonship), we receive by grace (divine adoption).  We “are being changed into his likeness from one degree of glory to another” (2 Cor. 3:18), but this transformation will not be complete until we enter Heaven.
St. Cyprian wrote eloquently about the necessity of using both wine and water in the chalice.  After identifying the wine with Christ and the water with those who make up the Church, he insists that
in consecrating the cup of the Lord, water alone cannot be offered, even as wine alone cannot be offered.  For if any one offer wine only, the blood of Christ is dissociated from us; but if the water be alone, the people are dissociated from Christ; but when both are mingled, and are joined with one another by a close union, there is completed a spiritual and heavenly sacrament.
Thus the cup of the Lord is not indeed water alone, nor wine alone, unless each be mingled with the other; just as, on the other hand, the body of the Lord cannot be flour alone or water alone, unless both should be united and joined together and compacted in the mass of one bread; in which very sacrament our people are shown to be made one, so that in like manner as many grains, collected, and ground, and mixed together into one mass, make one bread; so in Christ, who is the heavenly bread, we may know that there is one body, with which our number is joined and united. (Letter 62, 13)
Notice how St. Cyprian draws attention to the imperceptible presence of water in the bread as well as in the wine?  Both elements, then, attest to our participation in Christ in the sacrament of the Eucharist.  This shows how it is we all participate in the Offertory:  as we (water) are united to Christ (wine), we must unite our prayers and sacrifices to His sacrifice in the Eucharist.  Just because these Offertory prayers are said quietly (for the most part) does not mean the faithful are mute spectators while the priest “does his thing.”  Instead, in that intimate silence is the setting for our deeply personal union with Christ and self-offering with Him.
The fourth symbolism is based on the ancient words of this prayer, lacking in the Ordinary Form, referring to our creation and re-creation in Christ. (cf. Catechism 1692)  The water represents the purity of nature in which man was created:  “little less than God,” crowned with glory and honor, with dominion over the world and all therein. (cf. Ps. 8)  But from such a lofty height, our first parents fell into sin and this purity was lost.  We now live in hope of redemption through the blood of Christ.  It is through water that we are born anew, made “a new creation” in Christ. (2 Cor. 5:17)  This re-creation is a greater work than the first creation and a foretaste of the future eternity where God will “make all things new.” (Rev. 21:5)  Therefore, let us pray that God may bring to completion the work of re-creation that He has begun in us! (cf. Phil. 1:6)
Do not be surprised that so much can be written about such a small prayer.  The rite and its prayer are of phenomenal significance, as they represent the totality of redemption, from the Incarnation to the Passion and beyond, to the Resurrection and our eventual sharing in the divine life of God in Heaven.

Another Interview on Relevant Radio, this Thursday

Posted by Jeffrey Pinyan at 11:36 AM

I'll be interviewed on Relevant Radio on Thursday, May 27th, on the Drew Mariani show around 4:30 PM (Eastern).  It'll be on the topic of the new English translation of the Mass.  You can listen live here.

Article on "And with your spirit"

Posted by Jeffrey Pinyan at 12:54 PM

Louie Verrecchio, author of the Harvesting the Fruit of Vatican II series, is a regular columnist for Catholic News Agency (CNA).  He recently wrote an article about the new English translation of Et cum spiritu tuo as "And with your spirit."  You can read his article here.

Louie and I traded books — I sent him a copy of The Prayers of the People (which he graciously mentions at the end of his article), and he sent me a copy of the Harvesting the Fruit of Vatican II book on the Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy.  It was refreshing to meet a kindred spirit:  many of his insights are similar to my own, and he quotes the same documents (often the same quotes!) as I do in the introduction to The Prayers of the People.

Interview on WFJS

Posted by Jeffrey Pinyan at 11:09 PM

Here is the audio clip (transcript to follow) of my radio interview with Jim Manfredonia and his wife Cheryl on WFJS 1260-AM, my local Catholic radio station.  This interview happened during the Catholic radio-thon, on Thursday, April 15th. (The station's initials are for Servant of God Archbishop Fulton J. Sheen.)

Here's the MP3 (42:13, 38.6 MB):

Transcript of Jeffrey Pinyan’s Interview
on WFJS 1260-AM Domestic Church Radio, April 15, 2010

Interview on Relevant Radio on Tuesday

Posted by Jeffrey Pinyan at 10:45 PM

I'll be interviewed on Relevant Radio on Tuesday, May 4th, on the Drew Mariani show around 4:15 PM (Eastern).  It'll be on the topic of the new English translation of the Mass, of course, and my book.  You can listen live here.

English translation to receive approval today?

Posted by Jeffrey Pinyan at 7:34 AM

From Fr. Tim Finigan:

Edward Pentin, who reports for the National Catholic Register and for the Catholic Herald, reports this morning  that the Congregation for Divine Worship will approve the new ICEL translation of the Missal later today.

Review by Lorenzo Hatch

Posted by Jeffrey Pinyan at 5:12 PM

It has often been said, that in order to appreciate something or someone, one has to "know" that something or someone. When it comes to the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass, many Catholics find themselves simply going through the motions and not really knowing why. In his book, Jeffrey Pinyan seeks to help us grow in our understanding of the Mass which in turn will deepen one's prayer during the Mass. Not only does his book deepen one's prayer experience, but it can be regarded as a wonderful resource to have for general knowledge and research. As a graduate theologian, I HIGHLY recommend this book to anyone who desires to learn more about the Mass, deepen their spiritual awareness, or to use for research purposes. (from

Listen live at 1 PM (Eastern)

Posted by Jeffrey Pinyan at 7:40 AM

I will be on my local Catholic radio station — WFJS 1260-AM — today at 1 PM (Eastern), talking about my book and about Catholic radio (during the Wednesday-through-Friday Catholic radio-thon).  Listen here.

Interview on the Son Rise Morning Show

Posted by Jeffrey Pinyan at 3:29 PM

Here is the audio clip (transcript to follow) of my radio interview with Brian Patrick on the Son Rise Morning Show from Monday, April 12th.

I am most grateful to Brian Patrick, Matt Swaim, Rich Leonardi, the Son Rise Morning Show, Sacred Heart Radio, and EWTN Radio for giving me this opportunity to reach a national audience about my book, but more importantly for helping to spread the word about the new translation and move hearts towards more full, conscious, and actual participation in the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass.

Here's the MP3 (6:42, 12.2 MB):

Transcript of Jeffrey Pinyan’s Interview
on the Son Rise Morning Show, April 12, 2010

Talking about the new English translation

Posted by Jeffrey Pinyan at 1:42 PM

I'll be on the Son Rise Morning Show next Monday (the 12th) at 7:45 AM (ET) to talk with Brian Patrick about the new English translation of the Roman Missal — what are some of the changes, and how might they be implemented.

If there's any specific change you'd like mentioned (and briefly discussed), sound off!

New Catholic Book Giveaway!

Posted by Jeffrey Pinyan at 2:55 PM

The first five new Catholics who email me (author at prayingthemass dot com) a photo of themselves standing next to the Paschal Candle after the Easter Vigil on April 3, 2010 — as well as a mailing address! — will receive a free copy of Praying the Mass: The Prayers of the People.

Spread the word to your catechumen and candidate friends and family members.

Review by Rev. Cullinan in The Sower

Posted by Jeffrey Pinyan at 2:24 PM

Rev. Michael Cullinan
The Sower #43 (April 2010)

Jeffrey Pinyan, an American layman, has written and published (privately, it would appear) an extremely good guide to the Mass, based on the forthcoming English translation.  This little work of 150 pages can be used by anyone.  It would be very suitable for RCIA groups, but even a Doctor of Sacred Theology can learn something useful from it (for example why the Nicene Creed contains the phrase ‘light from light’).

This is a work of liturgical, indeed mystagogical, catechesis, of the sort that is very much needed today.  It is faithful to the sources and principles of the Ordinary Form of the Roman Rite, not skewing its presentation either towards or away from tradition.  For example, the Extraordinary Form is acknowledged, but purely factually.  Pinyan adopts a hermeneutic of continuity with tradition, citing works from the Douay Catechism of 1649 through Richard Challoner and Joseph Ratzinger to, most recent, a 2007 work by Thomas Kocik.  He interprets Vatican II in the light of what went before, for example Pius XII’s Mediator Dei, and completely avoids the polemical tone of all too many liturgical publications of recent decades.

This volume concentrates explicitly on the prayers of the people rather than those of the priest, so, for example, there is nothing on the Absolution in the Penitential Rite.  After an Introduction subtitled ‘What is “praying the Mass”?’ discussing participation, liturgical catechesis, and the new English translation, Pinyan goes slowly through the Mass in 12 chapters, from the fast before Mass to the mission we receive at the Dismissal.  Each chapter ends with ‘Questions for Reflection’ which are often thought provoking and do not simply lead back to the text for answers.  There is also an Appendix quoting from Mediator Dei on how the faithful offer the Eucharist as both priests and victims.  The text is attractive, easy to read, and remarkably free from typographical errors.  The Latin and the new English translation are given for all the people’s responses, with differences from the current 1973 translation marked up.  Some of these differences are explained very helpfully:  for example why we do not say we believe in the Church.

A short review cannot do justice to all the things one can learn from this book.  We are led through the Mass from Our Lord’s entrance into the Temple to his final commission on the Mount of Olives.  On the way we learn much not only about the Mass but also about what God gives us:  his mercy, his word, his peace, his very self and his blessing.  We are shown our need for all these things in a way that is always honest and interesting, and never pietistic or moralizing.  There is much excellent use of scripture, some of it beautiful, for example during the explanation of the context of the second part of the Sanctus (Palm Sunday) the text ‘the very stones would cry out’ (Luke 19:40) is quoted, and then vividly illustrated by Chesterton’s comment that they eventually did cry out through the invention of Gothic architecture.

Errors and omissions are hard to find.  Sometimes controversy is being avoided, sometimes the rubrics are themselves ambiguous, for example on whether a response to the offertory prayer said aloud is optional or not.  The footnote to St Augustine’s dates could come earlier and one piece of his writings is duplicated.  The Roman Catechism is cited but omitted from the Bibliography.  The way of showing reverence when receiving Holy Communion standing is not universally prescribed as a bow of the head, nor is kneeling for the whole of the Eucharistic Prayer.  But the extremely minor nature of these points only goes to show the quality of this work, which I am happy to commend warmly as an excellent and very widely useful piece of modern liturgical and catechetical writing.

Buy The Prayers of the People

Posted by Jeffrey Pinyan at 1:30 PM

Prayers of the People
Prayers of the Priest | The Eucharistic Prayers

Now available: digital download (as a PDF) for 50% off and no shipping!  Own a digital copy of Praying the Mass: The Prayers of the People for 6.00 USD by clicking here:

The print edition is available for purchase (12.00 USD/copy + shipping) as of September 22, 2009.  This price is only guaranteed in North America.  Prices for international orders will vary, especially regarding shipping.

If you are a bookseller and would like to place a bulk order (10 or more copies) at a discounted rate (7.20 USD/book, 40% off), email me directly with a purchase order:  jeff [at] prayingthemass [dot] com.

If you live in the United Kingdom, you can purchase copies through the Maryvale Institute.  The price is approximately 10£.

If you live in Australia or New Zealand, you can purchase copies through the Central Catholic Bookshop.

For people in North America, there are three ways to order the book.
  1. Buy it through
  2. Buy it through
  3. Buy it directly from me via the Paypal "Buy Now" button (with a fixed $3.61 shipping charge)
Option 3 is the most beneficial for me (I get the largest amount of royalties that way) which means it is the most beneficial to the charities I support from my book's sales.  No matter how you buy the book, please consider writing a review for it on

For everyone else (e.g. outside North America, the United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand), please email me directly for purchase information:  jeff [at] prayingthemass [dot] com.  You will most likely have to pay more than 3.61 USD in shipping costs.

Check out the free PDF of the new content in the second edition of The Prayers of the People!
Buy from me!

Introduction to The Prayers of the Priest

Posted by Jeffrey Pinyan at 2:28 PM

If you would like to help me edit my second book, Praying the Mass: The Prayers of the Priest, you can read the Introduction to the book here.

500 Copies Sold!

Posted by Jeffrey Pinyan at 10:54 AM

As of 9:55 AM on February 11, 2010, Praying the Mass: The Prayers of the People has sold 500 copies around the world:  the United States, Canada, England, Australia, and New Zealand.  The person who bought copy #500 is a priest from Rochester, NY, and he received a complimentary second copy as well.

Zenit Ad on Feb. 9th

Posted by Jeffrey Pinyan at 8:44 PM

I've got another ad in ZENIT on Tuesday:

Praying the Mass: The Prayers of the People (2nd edition) - A Guide to the New English Translation of the Mass

Praying the Mass: The Prayers of the People is a thorough yet accessible catechesis on the Mass based on the new English translation of the Roman Missal.  It explains why we pray what we pray, where it comes from in Scripture, and what it means.  It is a mystagogical catechesis which interprets the rites of the Mass in light of salvation history, explains their meaning and purpose, and relates them to the Christian life.  Read Praying the Mass to enhance your full, conscious, and active participation in the greatest prayer that can be prayed, the Mass!

172 pages (12 new pages), $12.00

New email address!

Posted by Jeffrey Pinyan at 3:14 PM

You can now contact me at:  jeff [at] prayingthemass [dot] com and author [at] prayingthemass [dot] com

Notre Dame Center for Liturgy

Posted by Jeffrey Pinyan at 1:03 PM

I recently found out about the online catechesis for the new English translation of the Roman Missal provided by Notre Dame University.  It's got free audio and video presentations (either 15 or 60 minutes in length).  Yet another research tool for The Prayers of the Priest!

Front and center!

Posted by Jeffrey Pinyan at 12:57 PM

During the months of October and November, I contacted several bookstores and distributors around the country (some by email, some in person) offering a complimentary copy of The Prayers of the People and asking if they would be interested in carrying my book.  One company which responded in the affirmative was Leaflet Missal.  They have a national and international audience, and I was told that my book would be listed in their Spring 2010 catalog.

On January 28, I was informed that my book had received front cover placement on their catalog!  This is wonderful news!  I could not have asked for better exposure for my book!  (Now I will really have to get to work on the second volume...)

Advent 2011?

Posted by Jeffrey Pinyan at 4:22 PM

Fr. John Zuhlsdorf has a post today about a article from the Catholic News Service.  This article reports that the new English translation of the Mass might be Advent of 2011.

Language in the liturgy

Posted by Jeffrey Pinyan at 9:58 AM

I just finished reading one of my Christmas gifts, Beyond Smells and Bells: The Wonder and Power of Christian Liturgy by Mark Galli.  The final chapter, "Words of Living W-A-T-E-R," discusses the use of a particular form of language in the liturgy.  I think these paragraphs are apropos to the conversations, debates, and arguments surrounding the new English translation of the Roman Missal:

In a media age, words come at us from all directions, like arrows from a thousand bows.  Most of these arrows are marketing words, advertising words, words designed to manipulate us, to sell us something. [...] For these reasons, among others, we distrust words, especially words that have been fashioned and shaped for the occasion by Madison or Pennsylvania Avenue.

So it's not surprising that many are put off by the words of the liturgy.  Surely, if we're trying to worship sincerely, praise a God who loves us as a father loves his children, we want to use language is "authentic."  What child uses formal speech to communicate with their "daddy"?  We want nothing to do with pretension, stuffiness, and any rhetoric that prevents us from being real.

In our desire to be real, we start thinking that authenticity is another word for spontaneity, as if everything we say at the spur of the moment is more true, more sincere than words we craft carefully.  For many, the Freudian slip is considered more authentic than the measured reply.

Indeed, sometimes what we blurt out thoughtlessly is actually what we mean and feel.  But more often than not, what we blurt out is ill-considered and something we either need to quality or apologize for.

The liturgy's answer to crafted language that deceives or manipulates is not to abandon crafted language but to shape it so that it reveals reality.  The most carefully crafted language in our culture tends to be poetry.  And poetry at its finest moments subverts our best attempts at hiding from reality. [...] The poetry of liturgy has just this power.  The liturgy contains words that have been shaped and crafted over the centuries.  It is formal speech.  It is public poetry.  As such it reaches into us to reveal not only the unnamed reality of our lives but the God who created us.  "In worship the voice of the Church calls up thoughts and feelings often far beyond us," wrote one liturgical theologian, "yet to which something in us faintly but firmly responds." (pp. 113-114)
I liked this book a great deal.  It's written by an Episcopalian, so it doesn't always portray a view of liturgy (and certain liturgical actions) that coincides with the Catholic view, but it is an excellent book about what the liturgy has that attracts us to it.

I might share a few other quotes from this book.  It will certainly be in the bibliography of Praying the Mass: The Prayers of the Priest.  (I'll need to read it again with a highlighter and a notepad handy, though!)

2nd Edition in review

Posted by Jeffrey Pinyan at 10:08 AM

I am currently awaiting the proof copy of the second edition of Praying the Mass: The Prayers of the People.  If all goes well, the second edition will be available for purchase by the end of this week.  There are about a dozen pages of additional content, but the price of the book remains the same:  $12.

The outline below is a brief summary of the changes and new content, and each section has a link to a post on for the benefit of those who already have the first edition and would rather not purchase the second edition as well.  You can also download a PDF (also free) of all the changes as one document; this PDF includes two whole chapters ("Preparing for Prayer" and "Offertory Prayers").

  • Introduction
  • Chapter 1 - Preparing for Prayer
    • Re-structured with major sections on "Personal Prayer", "Reading the Bible", "The Eucharistic Fast", "Sacramental Confession", "Silence and Stillness",
    • Section on "Personal Prayer"
      • Quotes from Vatican II documents
      • Emphasis on how to develop a personal habit of prayer
    • Section on "Reading the Bible"
      • Included more online resources for Scripture meditations and reflections
      • Included a reference to Vatican II on the Liturgy of the Hours (i.e. Divine Office)
    • Section on "Silence and Stillness"
      • Included quotes from Scripture on silence and stillness in prayer
    • Questions
      • Added a question about the importance of Scripture in a personal prayer life
  • Chapter 7 - Profession of Faith
  • Chapter 9 - Offertory Prayers
    • Added major section "Offertory Procession", rearranged content
    • Section on "Offertory Procession"
      • Explanation of the rite and its meaning
      • Inclusion of quote from Archbishop Fulton J. Sheen's Calvary and the Mass
    • Section on "Blessed be God forever."
      • Explanation of bread and wine as sacramentals
    • Section on "May the Lord accept..."
      • Explanation about the physical, spiritual, and substantial likeness of the bread and wine to the sacrifice of Christ
      • Inclusion of a quote from Archbishop Charles Chaput
      • Inclusion of a quote from a sermon of St. Peter Chrysologus on the baptismal priesthood
    • Conclusion
      • Inclusion of another quote the sermon of St. Peter Chrysologus
    • Questions
      • Added question about the heart being an altar
  • Chapter 11 - Communion Rite
    • Section "Lamb of God"
      • Added explanation of the title "Lamb of God"

I also made some general language corrections to the text:
  • I use "old" and "new" throughout to refer to the two English translations, avoiding words like "current" and "future".
  • I use "internal" and "external" when referring to participation, instead of mixing interior/internal and exterior/external.

Lamb of God

Posted by Jeffrey Pinyan at 10:07 AM

This is new content in the second edition of Praying the Mass: The Prayers of the People, Chapter 11, "Communion Rite".

We first called Christ the “Lamb of God” in the Gloria.  This title is deeply significant and ancient in its origin, reaching back to Abraham, the first of the Patriarchs of Israel.  God tested Abraham, asking him to offer his only son Isaac as a sacrifice.  Isaac, bearing the wood for the sacrifice on his back as he and Abraham walked up the mountain, asked his father where the lamb to be offered was; Abraham replied “God will provide himself the lamb.” (Gen. 22:8)  What Abraham found was no lamb, but a ram with its horns caught in a thicket.[1]  From that time on, God’s people sought the “lamb of God.”
To commemorate His liberating the Hebrews from Egypt, God instituted the feast of Passover at which every family was to take a pure, unblemished lamb and kill it, marking their doorposts with its blood and roasting and eating its flesh. (cf. Ex. 12)  In time, Jerusalem maintained a sacrificial flock of Temple lambs so that families on pilgrimage for the Passover could be sure to have a pure and unblemished lamb (rather than bringing one with them on the journey).  Still, these lambs were not God’s lamb, but each family’s lambs.[2]
It was not until St. John the Baptist cried out, “Behold, the Lamb of God!” (John 1:29, 36) that the fulfillment of this ancient promise was made known.  This title, which might sound peculiar and obscure to our modern ears, would have rung loud and clear in the ears of the Jews to whom St. John spoke.  And he was not the only one to make such a clear connection between Christ and the Passover lamb.  St. Paul, writing to the Corinthians, announced that “Christ, our paschal lamb, has been sacrificed.” (1 Cor. 5:7)[3]  St. Peter wrote that we have been ransomed “with the precious blood of Christ, like that of a lamb without blemish or spot.” (1 Pet. 1:19)  And St. John the Apostle and Evangelist, in his book of Revelation, refers to Jesus as “the Lamb” nearly thirty times, most notably describing His appearance as “a Lamb standing, as though it had been slain.” (Rev. 5:6)
It is this Lamb of God, Jesus Christ, Who “takes away the sin of the world” by His self-sacrifice. (John 1:29)  Every time we say that Jesus “take[s] away the sins of the world,” we should be aware that we are speaking in the present tense, not the past tense.  This is a reminder that Christ’s work of redemption did not conclude with His death, but is continual and ongoing:  the Mass is offered for the expiation of our sins.

[1] This scene is rich in Christological symbolism:  Christ, like Isaac, bore the wood for His own sacrifice on His back, and He wore a crown of thorns, prefigured by the ram whose horns were caught in a thorn-bush.
[2] The ritual of the Passover also points to Christ:  He, like the lamb, is pure and without blemish, and His bones were not broken when He was sacrificed.
[3] “Paschal” (as in “Paschal mystery”) comes from the Greek word pascha, which comes from the Hebrew word pesach, which means “Passover.”

New Question from Chapter 9

Posted by Jeffrey Pinyan at 10:05 AM

This is new content in the second edition of Praying the Mass: The Prayers of the People, Chapter 9, "Offertory Prayers".

5)      Relate:  If your heart is your spiritual altar, as described by St. Peter Chrysologus in his sermon, consider the significance of the words of the priest in the Preface which follows the Offertory:  “Lift up your hearts.”  What are you placing on the altar of your heart, and what does it mean to bring that altar and its offering into the presence of the Lord?

Conclusion to Chapter 9

Posted by Jeffrey Pinyan at 10:04 AM

This is new content in the second edition of Praying the Mass: The Prayers of the People, Chapter 9, "Offertory Prayers".

St. Peter Chrysologus ended his sermon with a challenge to live as self-sacrificing priests.  First, he spoke of the preparation necessary:
Each of us is called to be both a sacrifice to God and his priest.  Do not forfeit what divine authority confers on you.  Put on the garment of holiness, gird yourself with the belt of chastity.  Let Christ be your helmet, let the cross on your forehead be your unfailing protection.  Your breastplate should be the knowledge of God that he himself has given you.  Keep burning continually the sweet smelling incense of prayer.  Take up the sword of the Spirit.  Let your heart be an altar.
Once you are prepared, spiritually clothed in priestly attire and standing at the altar of your heart, ready to serve the Lord, then:
with full confidence in God, present your body for sacrifice.  God desires not death, but faith; God thirsts not for blood, but for self-surrender; God is appeased not by slaughter, but by the offering of your free will.
This is the spiritual attitude we must strive to adopt in our daily lives, but especially during the Mass.

May the Lord accept...

Posted by Jeffrey Pinyan at 10:02 AM

This is new content in the second edition of Praying the Mass: The Prayers of the People, Chapter 9, "Offertory Prayers".

The bread and wine are changed into the Real Presence of Jesus Christ at the consecration of the Eucharistic Prayer, but this presence is hidden under what the Church calls a “sacramental veil,” the remaining appearance of bread and wine.  When we see Christ in Heaven, there will be no veil.  In much the same way, we pray that we may be changed to be more like Christ (“configured” to Christ, in the language of the Church) by receiving Holy Communion.  This configuration to Christ is imperfect while we are on earth, but it will be perfected when our resurrected and glorified bodies enter Heaven.
Just as the bread and wine will be transubstantiated into Christ, what they represent – ourselves, the Church, the Body of Christ – is, in a sense, transubstantiated as well.  By identifying ourselves with the bread and wine, as Archbishop Sheen wrote, we are anticipating the change which will occur in us at the end of time while conforming our lives to the change taking place now.
Because of what the bread and wine will become (once consecrated), the union of our spiritual sacrifices to the bread and wine during the Offertory is a sign of our participation in Christ and His sacrifice.  The bread and wine already have a physical likeness to Christ’s sacrifice, because they are the same elements He used, and the same elements that were offered centuries before Him by Melchizedek. (cf. Gen. 14:18)  When we join our spiritual sacrifices to them in the Offertory, each of us gives them a spiritual likeness to Christ’s sacrifice.  Finally, in the Eucharistic Prayer, this likeness is perfected as they receive a substantial likeness to Christ’s sacrifice.
The bread and wine (and afterwards, the Eucharist) and ourselves are united as one at the hands of the priest:  he offers them physically as we offer them spiritually.  The bread and wine which the priest holds during the words of consecration represent us, since they represent the fruits of our labor.  Then, as the priest offers the Eucharist to God, we join our very lives – all of our worries, cares, sufferings, and prayers – to Christ in the Eucharist.  It is only by joining ourselves to Christ, the perfect sacrifice, that the contribution of our living, spiritual sacrifice can be truly acceptable to the Father. (cf. Rom. 12:1; 1 Pet. 2:5)[1]
Archbishop Charles Chaput, O.F.M. Cap., of Denver, wrote about the Offertory prayers in a weekly column in December 2002:  “This part of the Mass is another invitation for us to offer our lives in a sacrifice of praise to God.  Here the common priesthood actively engages in the sacrifice taking place.”  This common or baptismal priesthood is part of our identity in Christ.  In a sermon from the 5th century, St. Peter Chrysologus, the Bishop of Ravenna (in northern Italy) spoke to his flock about St. Paul’s words in Romans 12:1.
Listen now to what the Apostle urges us to do:  “I appeal to you,” he says, “to present your bodies as a living sacrifice.”  By this exhortation of his, Paul has raised all men to priestly status.
How marvelous is the priesthood of the Christian, for he is both the victim that is offered on his own behalf, and the priest who makes the offering.  He does not need to go beyond himself to seek what he is to immolate to God:  with himself and in himself he brings the sacrifice he is to offer God for himself.
In a Christian’s self-offering to God, he is following the pattern of Christ Who is both priest and victim.

[1] See the Appendix for excerpts from several Church documents (including Mediator Dei of Pope Pius XII) which provide a liturgical spirituality through which we learn to join ourselves to Christ.